Ice Hockey

Facts

Discipline of Ice Hockey
Participants 4215
NOCs 37
Competitions held 30 (Venues)
Distinct events 7
IF International Ice Hockey Federation

Description

Ice hockey is a Canadian sport that began in the early 19th century. Around 1860, a puck was substituted for a ball, and in 1879, two McGill University students, W. F. Robertson and R. F. Smith, devised the first rules, combining field hockey and rugby regulations. Originally the game was played nine to a side. The sport became the Canadian national sport with leagues everywhere. In 1894, Lord Stanley of Preston, Governor-General of Canada, donated the Stanley Cup that was first won in 1894 by a team representing the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association.

Ice hockey was contested at the 1920 Summer Olympics at Antwerpen, held in early April. These were also the first World Championships and were played by seven-man sides, the only time seven-man teams played in the Olympics. In 1924, the Olympics began using the current standard of six men on the ice at a time.

Ice hockey has been held at every Olympic Winter Games. Canada dominated early Olympic ice hockey tournaments as might be expected. In 1956, the Soviet Union first entered the Olympic Winter Games and won the ice hockey tournament quite handily. It was the pre-eminent country until its political division, its dominance interrupted only by major upset victories by the United States in 1960 and 1980.

Professionalism has always been a consideration in Olympic ice hockey. Canada dominated the early years of Olympic hockey, despite not being able to use their pros. When the Soviet Union came in in 1956, and assumed that dominance, Canada was quite upset, claiming that the Soviet ice hockey players were amateurs in name only, which was likely correct. Canada then boycotted the Olympic ice hockey tournament, not sending a team in 1972 or 1976.

Finally, in the late 1980s some professionals were allowed to compete in Olympic ice hockey, and in 1998, all players from the National Hockey League (NHL) became eligible. In fact, the NHL has usually shut down for slightly over two weeks in mid-season to allow its players to compete at the Olympics, although this did not occur in 2018. Women’s ice hockey appeared for the first time on the Olympic Program in 1998 at Nagano.

The athletes with the most medals have been two Canadian women, Jayne Hefford and Hayley Wickenheiser, with 4 golds and 5 medals, and Caroline Ouellette has also won 4 gold medals. Fourteen (14) athletes have won 3 gold medals – 8 Canadian women and 6 Soviet men.

The sport is governed by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), which was founded on 15 May 1908, and had 59 full member nations, with 21 associate members and one affiliate member, as of June 2010.

Presidents of the International Ice Hockey Federation:

All-time medal table

Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Canada CAN 13 6 3 22
Soviet Union URS 7 1 1 9
United States USA 4 11 2 17
Sweden SWE 2 4 5 11
Czech Republic CZE 1 0 1 2
Great Britain GBR 1 0 1 2
Olympic Athletes from Russia OAR 1 0 0 1
Unified Team EUN 1 0 0 1
Czechoslovakia TCH 0 4 4 8
Finland FIN 0 2 7 9
Germany GER 0 1 1 2
Russian Federation RUS 0 1 1 2
Switzerland SUI 0 0 3 3
West Germany FRG 0 0 1 1

Youth Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Sweden SWE 2 1 0 3
Japan JPN 2 0 1 3
Russian Federation RUS 1 1 1 3
United States USA 1 1 0 2
Finland FIN 1 0 1 2
Latvia LAT 1 0 0 1
Netherlands NED 1 0 0 1
Romania ROU 1 0 0 1
Hungary HUN 0 2 0 2
Canada CAN 0 1 2 3
Austria AUT 0 1 1 2
Slovakia SVK 0 1 1 2
Czech Republic CZE 0 1 0 1
Italy ITA 0 1 0 1
Germany GER 0 0 2 2
Australia AUS 0 0 1 1
Switzerland SUI 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Jayna Hefford CAN 4 1 0 5
Hayley Wickenheiser CAN 4 1 0 5
Caroline Ouellette CAN 4 0 0 4
Vladislav Tretyak RUS
URS
3 1 0 4
Jennifer Botterill CAN 3 1 0 4
Becky Kellar CAN 3 1 0 4
Meghan Agosta CAN 3 1 0 4
Vitaly Davydov RUS
URS
3 0 0 3
Anatoly Firsov RUS
URS
3 0 0 3
Andrey Khomutov RUS
URS
EUN
3 0 0 3
Viktor Kuzkin RUS
URS
3 0 0 3
Aleksandr Ragulin RUS
URS
3 0 0 3
Cherie Piper CAN 3 0 0 3
Colleen Sostorics CAN 3 0 0 3
Kim St-Pierre CAN 3 0 0 3
Gillian Apps CAN 3 0 0 3
Charlie Labonté CAN 3 0 0 3

Youth Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Lina Bäcklin SWE 1 0 0 1
Emmy Alasalmi SWE 1 0 0 1
Sabina Küller SWE 1 0 0 1
Maja Nylén-Persson SWE 1 0 0 1
Kirill Dolzhenkov RUS 1 0 0 1
Yumeka Chujo JPN 1 0 0 1
Makoto Ito JPN 1 0 0 1
Sergey Murashov RUS 1 0 0 1
Reina Sato JPN 1 0 0 1
Komomo Ito JPN 1 0 0 1
Himari Suzuki JPN 1 0 0 1
Rio Noro JPN 1 0 0 1
Adel Safin RUS 1 0 0 1
Matvey Michkov RUS 1 0 0 1
Kirill Kudryavtsev RUS 1 0 0 1
Andrey Malyavin RUS 1 0 0 1
Nagomi Murakami JPN 1 0 0 1
Hina Shimomukai JPN 1 0 0 1
Artyom Duda RUS 1 0 0 1
Kyoka Tsutsumi JPN 1 0 0 1
Ivan Miroshnichenko RUS 1 0 0 1
Mikhail Gulyayev RUS 1 0 0 1
An Shinoda JPN 1 0 0 1
Riri Noro JPN 1 0 0 1
Harua Umemori JPN 1 0 0 1
Yuzuyu Fujii JPN 1 0 0 1
Minami Kamada JPN 1 0 0 1
Vladislav Sapunov RUS 1 0 0 1
Kaaya Komoto JPN 1 0 0 1
Vyacheslav Malov RUS 1 0 0 1
Sergey Ivanov RUS 1 0 0 1
Ilya Rogovsky RUS 1 0 0 1
Masaki Tanabe JPN 1 0 0 1
Daniil Grigoryev RUS 1 0 0 1
Nikita Ryzhov RUS 1 0 0 1
Ilya Kvochko RUS 1 0 0 1
Ruslan Gazizov RUS 1 0 0 1
Markus Haapanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Jaakko Hälli FIN 1 0 0 1
Manu Honkanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Waltteri Hopponen FIN 1 0 0 1
Kaapo Kähkönen FIN 1 0 0 1
Juuso Kannel FIN 1 0 0 1
Kasperi Kapanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Antti Kauppinen FIN 1 0 0 1
Joel Kiviranta FIN 1 0 0 1
Alex Levanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Otto Nieminen FIN 1 0 0 1
Miikka Pitkänen FIN 1 0 0 1
Jere Rouhiainen FIN 1 0 0 1
Eetu Sopanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Otto Tolvanen FIN 1 0 0 1
Joni Tuulola FIN 1 0 0 1
Jonne Yliniemi FIN 1 0 0 1
Augusts Valdis Vasiļonoks LAT 1 0 0 1
Julie Zwarthoed NED 1 0 0 1
Kristin Andersson SWE 1 0 0 1
Matildah Andersson SWE 1 0 0 1
Sara Besseling SWE 1 0 0 1
Johanna Eidensten SWE 1 0 0 1
Wilma Ekström SWE 1 0 0 1
Maria Fuhrberg SWE 1 0 0 1
Rebecca Höglund SWE 1 0 0 1
Anna Johansson SWE 1 0 0 1
Anna Kjellbin SWE 1 0 0 1
Cajsa Lillbäck SWE 1 0 0 1
Amanda Lindberg SWE 1 0 0 1
Linn Peterson SWE 1 0 0 1
Jessica Wahlström Hjorth SWE 1 0 0 1
Malin Wong SWE 1 0 0 1
Sena Takenaka JPN 1 0 0 1
Eduard Cășăneanu ROU 1 0 0 1
Anna Amholt SWE 1 0 0 1
Josefin Bouveng SWE 1 0 0 1
Fanny Brolin SWE 1 0 0 1
Jennifer Carlsson SWE 1 0 0 1
Wilma Carlsson SWE 1 0 0 1
Julia Gustafsson SWE 1 0 0 1
Therese Järnkrok SWE 1 0 0 1
Lina Ljungblom SWE 1 0 0 1
Sofie Lundin SWE 1 0 0 1
Ronja Mogren SWE 1 0 0 1
Linnéa Sjölund SWE 1 0 0 1
Madelene Strömgren SWE 1 0 0 1
Mina Waxin SWE 1 0 0 1
Madelen Westerlund SWE 1 0 0 1
Agnes Wilhelmsson SWE 1 0 0 1
Ethel Wilhelmsson SWE 1 0 0 1
Jack DeBoer USA 1 0 0 1
Drew DeRidder USA 1 0 0 1
Ty Emberson USA 1 0 0 1
Jonathan Gruden USA 1 0 0 1
Christian Krygier USA 1 0 0 1
Will MacKinnon USA 1 0 0 1
Erik Middendorf USA 1 0 0 1
Jacob Pivonka USA 1 0 0 1
Adam Samuelsson USA 1 0 0 1
Mattias Samuelsson USA 1 0 0 1
Ryan Savage USA 1 0 0 1
Todd Scott USA 1 0 0 1
Jacob Semik USA 1 0 0 1
Oliver Wahlstrom USA 1 0 0 1
T. J. Walsh USA 1 0 0 1
Tyler Weiss USA 1 0 0 1
Jake Wise USA 1 0 0 1

Event types

Name Gender Still contested? Times held?
Ice Hockey Men 24
Ice Hockey Women 6
Ice Hockey Boys 3
Skills Challenge Boys 2
Ice Hockey Girls 3
Skills Challenge Girls 2
Ice Hockey Exhibition Men 5