Rhythmic Gymnastics

Facts

Discipline of Gymnastics
Participants 567
NOCs 48
Competitions held 15 (Venues)
Distinct events 4
IF Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique

Description

Rhythmic Gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics, together with artistic (regular) gymnastics and trampolining. It evolved from the mass gymnastics popular in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century, combined with music and elements from dance. As a sport, it first emerged in the Soviet Union, where the first championships were held in 1948.

The sport is governed worldwide by the Fédération internationale de gymnastique (FIG), which was founded on 23 July 1881 in Liège, with three founding members: Belgium, France, and the Netherlands, and it was originally called the Bureau des fédérations européennes de gymnastique (FEG). It was re-named the FIG in 1921. As of 2020 the organization has 148 member federations. The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastics (FIG) recognized rhythmic gymnastics as a discipline in 1961, with the first World Championships being held in 1963.

The sport has five different attributes: rope, hoop, ball, ribbon and, previously, clubs. There is also an all-around competition, in which the results of the four apparatuses are combined. In group competitions, teams consist of five members, with two events: 1) five hoops and 2) three ribbons plus two ropes. Only women are allowed to participate in rhythmic gymnastics internationally, although men do compete in some countries, notably Japan.

The sport was approved for the Olympics in 1980. However, in 1952 and 1956 a similar event was part of the women’s gymnastics program: the team event with portable apparatus. In that event, teams were allowed to pick an attribute of their choice, such as balls, hoops or clubs. Only two events are held at the Olympic Games, the individual all-around event and the group all-around event, held since 1996.

When rhythmic gymnastics made its Olympic début in Los Angeles 1984, the competition suffered from the Soviet boycott, as that country and its successor nations have dominated the sport since the beginning. Russia has won 10 of the 15 gold medals awarded, and no other nation has won more than one.

Only four women, all Russian, have managed to win more than one gold medal: Nataliya Lavrova (2000-04) and Yelena Posevina (2004-08), and Anastasiya Bliznyuk (2012-16), all doubled in the group competition, while Yevgeniya Kanayeva won two individual titles (2008-12).

All-time medal table

Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Russian Federation RUS 10 4 2 16
Spain ESP 1 2 0 3
Ukraine UKR 1 0 4 5
Soviet Union URS 1 0 1 2
Unified Team EUN 1 0 1 2
Canada CAN 1 0 0 1
Belarus BLR 0 4 2 6
Bulgaria BUL 0 2 2 4
Italy ITA 0 1 1 2
People's Republic of China CHN 0 1 0 1
Romania ROU 0 1 0 1
Greece GRE 0 0 1 1
West Germany FRG 0 0 1 1

Youth Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Russian Federation RUS 5 0 0 5
Belarus BLR 0 2 0 2
Bulgaria BUL 0 1 0 1
Egypt EGY 0 1 0 1
Ukraine UKR 0 1 0 1
Canada CAN 0 0 1 1
Germany GER 0 0 1 1
Italy ITA 0 0 1 1
Kazakhstan KAZ 0 0 1 1
United States USA 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Nataliya Lavrova RUS 2 0 0 2
Yelena Posevina RUS 2 0 0 2
Yevgeniya Kanayeva RUS 2 0 0 2
Anastasiya Bliznyuk RUS 2 0 0 2
Aleksandra Timoshenko URS
UKR
EUN
1 0 1 2
Alina Kabayeva RUS 1 0 1 2
Lori Fung CAN 1 0 0 1
Marta Baldó ESP 1 0 0 1
Nuria Cabanillas ESP 1 0 0 1
Estela Giménez ESP 1 0 0 1
Lorena Guréndez ESP 1 0 0 1
Tania Lamarca ESP 1 0 0 1
Estíbaliz Martínez ESP 1 0 0 1
Kateryna Serebrianska UKR 1 0 0 1
Marina Lobach BLR
URS
1 0 0 1
Yuliya Barsukova RUS 1 0 0 1
Irina Belova RUS 1 0 0 1
Yelena Shalamova RUS 1 0 0 1
Mariya Netesova RUS 1 0 0 1
Vera Shimanskaya RUS 1 0 0 1
Irina Zilber RUS 1 0 0 1
Olesya Belugina RUS 1 0 0 1
Olga Glatskikh RUS 1 0 0 1
Tatyana Kurbakova RUS 1 0 0 1
Yelena Murzina RUS 1 0 0 1
Margarita Aliychuk RUS 1 0 0 1
Anna Gavrilenko RUS 1 0 0 1
Tatyana Gorbunova RUS 1 0 0 1
Darya Shkurikhina RUS 1 0 0 1
Nataliya Zuyeva RUS 1 0 0 1
Ulyana Donskova RUS 1 0 0 1
Kseniya Dudkina RUS 1 0 0 1
Alina Makarenko RUS 1 0 0 1
Anastasiya Nazarenko RUS 1 0 0 1
Karolina Sevastyanova RUS 1 0 0 1
Anastasiya Maksimova RUS 1 0 0 1
Anastasiya Tatareva RUS 1 0 0 1
Margarita Mamun RUS 1 0 0 1
Mariya Tolkachova RUS 1 0 0 1
Vera Biryukova RUS 1 0 0 1

Youth Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Kseniya Dudkina RUS 1 0 0 1
Alina Makarenko RUS 1 0 0 1
Karolina Sevastyanova RUS 1 0 0 1
Olga Ilyina RUS 1 0 0 1
Aleksandra Merkulova RUS 1 0 0 1
Darya Anenkova RUS 1 0 0 1
Irina Annenkova RUS 1 0 0 1
Darya Dubova RUS 1 0 0 1
Viktoriya Ilyina RUS 1 0 0 1
Nataliya Safonova RUS 1 0 0 1
Sofya Skomorokh RUS 1 0 0 1
Darya Trubnikova RUS 1 0 0 1

Event types

Name Gender Still contested? Times held?
Individual Women 9
Group Women 6
Individual Girls 3
Group Girls 2