As in 1968 and 1972 the biathlon program consisted of a 20 km individual event for men, and a 4×7½ km relay, although starting in 1980, the program would begin to enlarge, with the addition that year of a 10 km sprint event. The events were held in and around the Langlaufstadion in Seefeld in Tirol, a small village about 17 km northwest of Innsbruck. This was the same site that was used for the biathlon events at the 1964 Winter Olympics.
Both gold medals were won by the Soviet Union, with Nikolay Kruglov winning the individual event. The relay victory was the third consecutive for the Soviet Union.