Artistic Gymnastics

Facts

Discipline of Gymnastics
Participants 4062
NOCs 93
Competitions held 317 (Venues)
Distinct events 92
IF Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique

Description

Gymnastics is an ancient sport, having been practiced in various forms in Ancient Greece and Rome. However, gymnastics competitions are relatively modern. The modern development of gymnastics began in the mid-19th century in Europe. Gymnastics societies were formed in Germany (Turnvereine) and Bohemia of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Sokols). Similar societies were formed in France and Switzerland and then spread generally throughout Europe. The sport is governed worldwide by the Fédération internationale de gymnastique (FIG), which was founded on 23 July 1881 in Liège, with three founding members: Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. As of 2018 the organization it has 146 member federations. Originally called the Bureau des fédérations européennes de gymnastique (FEG), it was re-named the FIG in 1921.

Modern competitive gymnastics has developed from two systems – the German Turnverein system emphasizing apparatus work of a formal nature and stressing muscular development, and the Swedish system of free exercises concerned with developing rhythmic movements.

Gymnastics has been contested at every Olympic Games. The program has varied widely but since World War II it has been fairly constant. Men compete in teams on six apparatuses – still rings, floor exercises, horizontal bar, parallel bars, pommelled horse, and horse vault. The top competitors in the team event are eligible for the individual all-around event (maximum of three per nation). This is conducted again on all six apparatuses. The top performers in each apparatus are then advanced to the individual apparatus finals, now with a maximum of two performers from any nation per event.

Women’s competition is similar, except that they compete in only four events – uneven parallel bars, floor exercises, horse vault, and balance beam. In 1984, rhythmic gymnastics for women was added to the Olympic Program. Trampoline events for men and women were added to the gymnastics program at Sydney in 2000. With these new disciplines of gymnastics being contested at the Olympics, the traditional form is sometimes known as artistic gymnastics, to distinguish it from the three disciplines together.

At the Olympics, the Soviet Union and its successor republics have been dominant in the women’s events. Romania has also had superb female gymnasts, notably the remarkable Nadia Comăneci. Men’s gymnastics has been divided almost evenly since World War II by the Japanese and Soviet Union. The Chinese men and women are also now of top caliber. Because the gymnasts may compete in several events, 13 Olympic gymnasts have won 10 or more Olympic medals, led by Larysa Latynina (18), Nikolay Andrianov (15), and Borys Shakhlin and Takashi Ono with 13. Latynina leads Olympic gymnasts with nine gold medals, while among men, Sawao Kato has won the most gold medals with eight.

All-time medal table

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Soviet Union URS 72 67 43 182
United States USA 36 42 36 114
Japan JPN 31 33 34 98
People's Republic of China CHN 26 18 17 61
Romania ROU 25 20 26 71
Switzerland SUI 16 19 14 49
Hungary HUN 15 11 14 40
Germany GER 14 12 14 40
Italy ITA 14 5 9 28
Czechoslovakia TCH 12 13 10 35
Russian Federation RUS 10 15 19 44
Unified Team EUN 9 5 4 18
Finland FIN 8 5 12 25
East Germany GDR 6 13 17 36
Ukraine UKR 5 3 4 12
Greece GRE 5 3 2 10
Yugoslavia YUG 5 2 4 11
Sweden SWE 5 2 1 8
France FRA 3 10 9 22
Democratic People's Republic of Korea PRK 3 0 0 3
Netherlands NED 3 0 0 3
Great Britain GBR 2 3 9 14
Bulgaria BUL 2 2 6 10
Spain ESP 2 1 1 4
Republic of Korea KOR 1 4 4 9
Brazil BRA 1 2 1 4
Denmark DEN 1 2 1 4
Norway NOR 1 2 1 4
Poland POL 1 1 2 4
Austria AUT 1 1 0 2
Latvia LAT 1 1 0 2
Canada CAN 1 0 0 1
Mixed team MIX 1 0 0 1
Belgium BEL 0 1 1 2
Croatia CRO 0 1 0 1
Belarus BLR 0 0 4 4
Uzbekistan UZB 0 0 1 1
West Germany FRG 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Larysa Latynina URS 9 5 4 18
Sawao Kato JPN 8 3 1 12
Nikolay Andrianov URS 7 5 3 15
Borys Shakhlin URS
UKR
7 4 2 13
Věra Čáslavská CZE
TCH
7 4 0 11
Viktor Chukarin URS 7 3 1 11
Akinori Nakayama JPN 6 2 2 10
Vitaly Shcherbo BLR
EUN
6 0 4 10
Takashi Ono JPN 5 4 4 13
Ágnes Keleti HUN 5 3 2 10

Event types

Name Gender Still contested? Times held?
Individual All-Around Men 29
Team All-Around Men 28
Floor Exercise Men 20
Horse Vault Men 25
Parallel Bars Men 25
Horizontal Bar Men 25
Rings Men 24
Pommelled Horse Men 23
Individual All-Around Women 17
Team All-Around Women 20
Floor Exercise Women 17
Horse Vault Women 17
Uneven Bars Women 17
Balance Beam Women 17
Individual All-Around Boys 2
Floor Exercise Boys 2
Horse Vault Boys 2
Parallel Bars Boys 2
Horizontal Bar Boys 2
Rings Boys 2
Pommelled Horse Boys 2
Individual All-Around Girls 2
Floor Exercise Girls 2
Horse Vault Girls 2
Uneven Bars Girls 2
Balance Beam Girls 2
Individual All-Around, Field Sports Men 1
Individual All-Around, 4 Events Men 1
Individual All-Around, 5 Events Men 1
Individual All-Around, Apparatus Work Men 1
Team All-Around, Free System Men 2
Team All-Around, Swedish System Men 2
Parallel Bars, Teams Men 1
Horizontal Bar, Teams Men 1
Rope Climbing Men 5
Pole Climbing Men 1
Club Swinging Men 2
Tumbling Men 1
Side Horse Men 3
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Simultaneous, Excellence Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Simultaneous, Superior Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Simultaneous, First Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Simultaneous, Second Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Simultaneous, Third Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Excellence Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Superior Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, First Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Second Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Third Division Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Special Contest, Handsfree, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Special Contest, Handsfree, Group A Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Apparatus, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Boxing, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Canne, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Fencing, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Military Exercises Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Pyramids without Apparatus, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Pyramids with Apparatus, Group 1 Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Ballet Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Tournament Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Statue Poses Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Special Event Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Racing Contest Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, National Championships Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Olympic Championships, Individual Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Shooting Championships, Youth Men 1
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Shooting Championships, Honorary Members and Associates Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Instructors Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Advanced Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Swimming, Team Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Swimming, Individual Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Gymnastics Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Alternative Contest Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Simultaneous Contest Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Racing Contest Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Handsfree Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Apparatus Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Wrestling Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Boxing Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Pyramids without Apparatus Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Pyramids with Apparatus Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Individual Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Artistic, Individual Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Olympic Competition, Individual Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Gymnastics, Team Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Simultaneous Contest (#2) Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Race Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Individual (#2) Men 1
Festival for Societies of the Seine, Swimming, students, individuals, societies Men 1
Team Portable Apparatus Women 2
26th Federal Festival, Society and Association Contests, Non-Simultaneous, Shooting Championships, Honorary Members and Associates Women 1
Swedish Gymnastics Open 2