For the earliest editions of the Olympic Games between Athens 1896 and the St. Louis 1904, athletes were registered by their National Olympic Committee, when it existed. Frequently, athletes were selected and registered by clubs, independent of their nationality. This was frequently the case in team sports or relays, although there are other examples.
In specific cases, the athletes’ participation and medals are associated with the club’s country and not necessarily with the athlete’s nationality. This means that an athlete from country XXX may have competed and won medals for country YYY. In team events, when a team was registered as a club, the club’s country is the one used.
When known, country, affiliation (clubs), and nationality are displayed. In the case of athletes without a club affiliation known, the country displayed is the nationality of the athlete.