Cesare Milani was the coxswain of the Scarronzoni, the rowers of the Unione Canottieri Livornesi. His first international achievement was a silver medal at the 1926 European Championships in coxed pairs, which was followed by two victories in 1927 and 1929. He started his Olympic career in 1928 in Amsterdam where the boat was eliminated in the quarterfinals. Subsequently he coxed the Italian eights in both 1932 and 1936, winning silver medals at both Olympics. With this boat Milani was 1929 and 1937 European Champion in the eights. He also won three silvers (1930-31, 1933) and one bronze medal (1938) at the European Championships. Scarronzoni won three consecutive Italian titles in the coxed pairs from 1927-29, while with the Scarronzoni eights he was a 12-time Italian Champion (1929-33, 1935-41). After World War II Milani helped to reestablish rowing in Livorno.