Poul Pedersen won a silver medal in football with the Danish team at the 1960 Roma Olympics. Pedersen played his entire career for AIA (Arbejdernes Idrætsklub Aarhus) in Århus, as a midfielder. He made his international début against Sweden in the 1953 Nordic Football Championships. Pedersen became Danish team captain in 1958, a position he held for 16 international games. He retired shortly after the 1960 Olympics, but came back for one game in 1961 and one in 1964, making him the first Danish player to record 50 caps.