|Type||Competed in Olympic Games, Competed in Intercalated Games, Non-starter|
|Full name||Otto Friedrich Wilhelm•Scheff (Sochaczewsky-)|
|Other names||Otto Sheff|
|Born||12 December 1889 in Berlin, Berlin (GER)|
|Died||26 October 1956 in Maria Enzersdorf (AUT)|
|Affiliations||WAC, Wien (AUT)|
Born in Berlin, Germany to the family of Jewish writer Heinrich Sochaczewsky (who published his works under the pseudonym Victor von Falk), Otto Scheff grew up in Wien (Vienna), Austria. Scheff, who was considered the world’s premier middle-distance freestyler in the trudgeon stroke era, made his international début in 1905 at the international tournament held in Paris, termed the World Championships, where he was third in the 500 m freestyle behind British David “Boy” Billington and Eric Forsyth. Scheff also won the Prix de l’Avenir at that tournament as the best swimmer under 16-years-old. At the 1906 Intercalated Olympics, Scheff won 400 freestyle gold, after a close battle with Britain’s Henry Taylor, and was third in the mile freestyle. In 1907, Scheff again competed in Paris at the “World Championships”, winning gold in the 500 free.
At the 1908 Olympics, Scheff won bronze in 400 free and reached the final of the 1,500 metres, but abandoned the race after 400 metres. Scheff made his last international appearance at the 1912 Olympics, where he was a member of the Austrian water polo team that finished fourth.
Scheff graduated from the University of Vienna in 1913 with a law degree and later had a successful career as a lawyer. From 1945-53, he was a member of the National Council of Austria (Nationalrat) as a member of Austrian People’s Party and from 1948-56 served as the vice-president of the Austrian Olympic Committee. Scheff was inducted to the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1988. His daughter Gertraud Scheff also became an international level swimmer, who qualified for the cancelled 1940 Olympics.
|1906 Intercalated Games||Swimming (Aquatics)||100 metres Freestyle, Men||Intercalated||DNS||Representing Austria|
|400 metres Freestyle, Men||Intercalated||1||Gold|
|One Mile Freestyle, Men||Intercalated||3||Bronze|
|4 × 250 metres Freestyle Relay, Men||Intercalated||Austria||AC|
|1908 Summer Olympics||Swimming (Aquatics)||100 metres Freestyle, Men||Olympic||4 h2 r2/3||Representing Austria|
|400 metres Freestyle, Men||Olympic||3||Bronze|
|1,500 metres Freestyle, Men||Olympic||AC r3/3|
|1912 Summer Olympics||Swimming (Aquatics)||100 metres Freestyle, Men||Olympic||DNS||Representing Austria|
|400 metres Freestyle, Men||Olympic||DNS|
|Water Polo (Aquatics)||Water Polo, Men||Olympic||Austria||4|
|1906 Intercalated Games||27 April 1906||Swimming (Aquatics)||400 metres Freestyle, Men||Final Standings||6:24.0||1|
|1908 Summer Olympics||15 July 1908||Swimming (Aquatics)||400 metres Freestyle, Men||Semi-Finals, Heat One||5:40.6||1|