Sándor Gombos started his fencing career at school. From 1912 he competed for MAC, from 1925 the István Tisza Vívó Club, and from 1929 the Nemzeti Vívó Club. He fought on the front line during World War I before graduating from the University of Budapest with a medical degree in 1921. In 1926 and 1927 he won the individual European championship title and then, in 1930 and 1931, took gold as part of the national team.
At the 1928 Summer Olympics, he became an Olympic champion as a member of the Hungarian sabre team and finished fifth in the individual. In 1930 he won the Hungarian Championship title in individual sabre and was a member of the victorious team in 1924, 1927 and 1929. He retired from active sports in 1932 and practiced as a doctor. After World War II he was president of the Hungarian Fencing Federation for a short time.