Nikolay Bazhukov made his international début at the 1973 European Junior Championships, where he won gold in the relay and bronze at 15 km. His next start at a major international tournament was at the 1976 Olympics, where Bazhukov surprised everyone by winning the 15 km race, three seconds ahead of his teammate Yevgeny Belyayev. He also won bronze in the relay and was fifth in the 30 km at those Olympics. The 1978 World Championships were not very successful for Bazhukov, as he finished only ninth in both the 15 and 50 km, and was not selected for the relay team. He made his last international appearance at the 1980 Olympics, where he won his second Olympic gold in the relay and was 14th in the 30 km. Domestically he won one individual Soviet title in 1976 over 15 km and four relay titles (1974, 1976-78). After his sporting career Bazhukov worked as a cross-country ski coach in his native Komi and also as a member of the Public Chamber of Respublika Komi.