|NOC||National Olympic Committee of Turkmenistan|
|Youth Olympic Games||19|
|Other competitors with TKM nationality||4|
As a former member of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistani athletes competed from 1952-88 on the former Soviet Union teams, and their athletes were present at Barcelona in 1992 as members of the Unified Team. During this time Turkmenistanis won two medals. The shooter Marat Niyazov won silver in the small-bore rifle, three positions in 1960 and the swimmer Gennady Nikolayev was a member of the bronze medal winning 4×200 metres freestyle relay team at the 1956 Games.
Turkmenistan first competed independently at the 1996 Olympic Games, but it has not yet participated in the Olympic Winter Games. Through 2022, Turkmenistan athletes have competed in the following Olympic sports / disciplines: track & field athletics, boxing, judo, shooting, swimming, table tennis, weightlifting, and wrestling. Polina Guryeva won Turkmenistan’s first medal at Tokyo 2020 in weightlifting, with a silver in the women’s lightweight class. The best finish by a Turkmen man is fourth in 2020 men’s superheavyweight weightlifting by Hojamuhammet Toýçyýew.
|1996 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||4||3||7||Results|
|2000 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||4||4||8||Results|
|2004 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||6||3||9||Results|
|2008 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||6||4||10||Results|
|2012 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||7||3||10||Results|
|2016 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||4||5||9||Results|
|2020 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||5||4||9||Results|
|2010 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||3||2||5||Results|
|2014 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||2||1||3||Results|
|2018 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||7||3||10||Results|
|2020 Winter Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||1||0||1||Results|
|3-on-3 Ice Hockey (Ice Hockey)||1||0||1||Results|
|3x3 Basketball (Basketball)||4||0||4||Results|
|2020 Summer Olympics||Olympic Games||0||1||0||1|
|2010 Summer Youth Olympics||Youth Olympic Games||0||0||1||1|
Includes medals won as part of mixed teams.