Shooting

Facts

Discipline of Shooting
Participants 4841
NOCs 148
Competitions held 273 (Venues)
Distinct events 89
IF International Shooting Sport Federation

Description

Shooting originated as a means of survival, as shooting was practiced to hunt game for food. In the 19th century, as the industrial revolution occurred and hunting for food became less necessary for more people, shooting as a sport evolved. The sport was first popular in English-speaking countries, notably England and the United States, but also in Ireland and South Africa. The National Rifle Association (NRA) was formed in 1871 and provided the impetus for the development of organized shooting sport in the United States. The world governing body is the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF), formerly the L’Union Internationale des Fédérations et Associations nationals de Tir and the L’Union Internationale de Tir (UIT), which was formed on 17 July 1907 in Zürich, with seven founding members: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, and the Netherlands. As of 2018 the ISSF has 150 member nations.

Shooting has been contested at most of the Olympic Games. Baron Pierre de Coubertin was an avid pistol shot so he saw to it that the sport was included on the program in 1896. There were also events in 1900, but none were contested in 1904 at St. Louis. In 1928 at Amsterdam, shooting events were also not on the program. This was due to the fact, that usually prize money was awarded at shooting competitions, which was against the Olympic charter, which allows only amateurs to participate.

The program has varied more than any other sport (with the possible exception of sailing/yachting). In 1908, 1912, 1920, and 1924, there were dozens of events, including numerous team events, and it was possible for shooters to win several medals at each Olympics. After the sport’s hiatus in 1928, it returned to the Olympics in 1932 with only two events – one for pistols and one for rifles.

Women were first allowed to compete in Olympic shooting in 1968, when all events became open to both genders, and in that year, Mexico, Peru, and Poland each entered one female contestant. In 1976, Margaret Murdock (USA) won a silver medal in the small-bore rifle (three positions) event. In 1984, the UIT introduced separate events for women. Since 1984, the women’s shooting program has been expanded at each Olympics, and the number of mixed events decreased. Beginning in 2000 at Sydney, men and women competed in fully separate shooting programs, with 10 events for men and 7 for women.

Shooting events at the Olympics have been held in several types of events: long-distance rifle, small-bore rifle, air pistol and rifle shooting, pistol shooting, skeet and trap shooting, and running target events. Team shooting events were discontinued after the 1924 Olympics.

The top medal winners in this sport all date from the period 1896-1924. Six marksmen have won five gold medals. Carl Osburn stands out among them as having won the most total medals (11), while Willis Lee uniquely won all his five golds at the same Games, in 1920.

All-time medal table

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
United States USA 54 29 27 110
People's Republic of China CHN 22 15 19 56
Soviet Union URS 17 15 17 49
Italy ITA 16 15 11 42
Sweden SWE 15 24 18 57
Great Britain GBR 13 15 18 46
Norway NOR 13 8 11 32
Germany GER 11 9 6 26
France FRA 8 12 9 29
Russian Federation RUS 7 14 12 33
Republic of Korea KOR 7 8 1 16
Hungary HUN 7 3 7 17
Switzerland SUI 6 6 9 21
Romania ROU 6 4 5 15
Unified Team EUN 5 2 1 8
Australia AUS 5 1 5 11
Finland FIN 4 7 10 21
Bulgaria BUL 4 6 6 16
Greece GRE 4 4 5 13
West Germany FRG 4 4 3 11
Poland POL 4 3 5 12
Canada CAN 4 3 2 9
Czechoslovakia TCH 4 3 2 9
Ukraine UKR 4 2 2 8
Denmark DEN 3 10 5 18
East Germany GDR 3 8 5 16
Czech Republic CZE 2 3 4 9
Croatia CRO 2 0 1 3
Yugoslavia YUG 2 0 1 3
Belgium BEL 1 5 3 9
Austria AUT 1 2 5 8
Belarus BLR 1 2 4 7
Japan JPN 1 2 3 6
Brazil BRA 1 2 1 4
India IND 1 2 1 4
Serbia and Montenegro SCG 1 2 1 4
Peru PER 1 2 0 3
Individual Olympic Athletes IOA 1 1 3 5
Vietnam VIE 1 1 0 2
Cuba CUB 1 0 3 4
Azerbaijan AZE 1 0 2 3
Democratic People's Republic of Korea PRK 1 0 2 3
Slovenia SLO 1 0 2 3
Lithuania LTU 1 0 0 1
United Arab Emirates UAE 1 0 0 1
Slovakia SVK 0 2 3 5
Kazakhstan KAZ 0 2 1 3
Spain ESP 0 2 1 3
Colombia COL 0 2 0 2
Mongolia MGL 0 1 1 2
Netherlands NED 0 1 1 2
New Zealand NZL 0 1 1 2
Serbia SRB 0 1 1 2
Argentina ARG 0 1 0 1
Chile CHI 0 1 0 1
Latvia LAT 0 1 0 1
Mexico MEX 0 1 0 1
Portugal POR 0 1 0 1
Republic of Moldova MDA 0 1 0 1
South Africa RSA 0 1 0 1
Kuwait KUW 0 0 2 2
Georgia GEO 0 0 1 1
Haiti HAI 0 0 1 1
Qatar QAT 0 0 1 1
Venezuela VEN 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Carl Osburn USA 5 4 2 11
Willis Lee USA 5 1 1 7
Ole Lilloe-Olsen NOR 5 1 0 6
Al Lane USA 5 0 1 6
Bud Fisher USA 5 0 0 5
Otto Olsen NOR 4 3 1 8
Einar Liberg NOR 4 2 1 7
Jin Jong-O KOR 4 2 0 6
Lloyd Spooner USA 4 1 2 7
Vilhelm Carlberg SWE 3 4 0 7

Event types

Name Gender Still contested? Times held?
Air Pistol, 10 metres Men 8
Rapid-Fire Pistol, 25 metres Men 17
Free Pistol, 50 metres Men 19
Air Rifle, 10 metres Men 9
Small-Bore Rifle, Three Positions, 50 metres Men 13
Small-Bore Rifle, Prone, 50 metres Men 17
Trap Men 15
Double Trap Men 6
Skeet Men 6
Air Pistol, 10 metres Women 8
Sporting Pistol, 25 metres Women 9
Air Rifle, 10 metres Women 9
Small-Bore Rifle, Three Positions, 50 metres Women 9
Trap Women 5
Skeet Women 5
Air Pistol, 10 metres Boys 2
Air Rifle, 10 metres Boys 2
Air Pistol, 10 metres Girls 2
Air Rifle, 10 metres Girls 2
Air Pistol, 10 metres, Team Mixed Youth 1
Air Rifle, 10 metres, Team Mixed Youth 1
Military Pistol, Team Men 1
Free Pistol, 25 metres Men 1
Free Pistol, 30 metres Men 1
Free Pistol, 50 yards Men 1
Free Pistol, 50 yards, Team Men 1
Free Pistol, 50 metres, Team Men 3
Military Pistol, 25 metres Men 1
Military Pistol, 30 metres Men 1
Military Revolver, 1873-1874 Gras Model, 20 metres Men 1
Military Revolver, 20 metres Men 1
Dueling Pistol Au Visé 20 metres Men 1
Dueling Pistol Au Commandement, 25 metres Men 1
Dueling Pistol, 30 metres Men 1
Dueling Pistol, 30 metres, Team Men 1
Muzzle-Loading Pistol, 25 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, Three Positions, 300 metres Men 10
Free Rifle, Three Positions, 300 metres, Team Men 5
Free Rifle, Any Position, 300 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, Kneeling, 300 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, Prone, 300 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, Prone, 600 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, Standing, 300 metres Men 1
Free Rifle, 400, 600 and 800 metres, Team Men 1
Free Rifle, 1,000 Yards Men 1
Military Rifle, Three Positions, 300 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Any Position, 600 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, 1873-1874 Gras Model, Kneeling Or Standing, 200 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Kneeling Or Standing, 300 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Prone, 300 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Prone, 300 metres, Team Men 1
Military Rifle, Prone, 600 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Prone, 600 metres, Team Men 1
Military Rifle, Standing, 300 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, Standing, 300 metres, Team Men 1
Military Rifle, 200 metres Men 1
Military Rifle, 200, 400, 500 and 600 metres, Team Men 1
Military Rifle, 200/500/600/800/900/1,000 Yards, Team Men 1
Military Rifle, 300 metres and 600 metres, Prone, Team Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Any Position, 50 metres Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Prone, 50 metres, Team Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Standing, 50 metres Men 1
Small Bore-Rifle, Standing, 50 metres, Team Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Prone, 50 and 100 yards Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, 50 and 100 yards, Team Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Disappearing Target, 25 metres Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Disappearing Target, 25 metres, Team Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Disappearing Target, 25 yards Men 1
Small-Bore Rifle, Moving Target, 25 yards Men 1
Running Target, 10 metres Men 4
Running Target, 50 metres Men 2
Running Target, Single Shot Men 4
Running Target, Single Shot, Team Men 4
Running Target, Double Shot Men 4
Running Target, Double Shot, Team Men 2
Running Target, Single And Double Shot Men 2
Trap, Single Shot, 16 metres Men 1
Trap, Double Shot, 14 metres Men 1
Trap, Team Men 4
Unknown Event Men 1
Double Trap Women 3
Rapid-Fire Pistol, 25 metres Open 4
Free Pistol, 50 metres Open 4
Free Rifle, Three Positions, 300 metres Open 2
Small-Bore Rifle, Three Positions, 50 metres Open 4
Small-Bore Rifle, Prone, 50 metres Open 4
Running Target, 50 metres Open 3
Trap Open 7
Skeet Open 7