Germany

Overview

NOCDeutscher Olympischer Sportbund
Flagbearers59

Participants

Olympic Games 4935
Intercalated Games 49
Youth Olympic Games 343

Description

Prior to World War II, Germany appeared at all Olympics (Winter and Summer) with the exception of 1920 and 1924, when, as an aggressor nation in World War I, it was not invited. Because of its actions in World War II, and because no true German state existed at the time, Germany was again not allowed to compete in 1948. After World War II, Germany split into two nations. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) (West) was proclaimed in Bonn on 23 May 1949 from the former United States, British, and French Zones of Occupation. The occupying powers restored civil status on 21 September 1949. The German Democratic Republic (GDR) (East) was formed on 7 October 1949 from the former Soviet Zone of Occupation. As well, the province of Saarland formed an independent country until 1956. Saarland competed independently in 1952, its only Olympic appearance.

From 1952 to 1968, the problem of the “Two Germanies” was a major political problem for the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The FRG National Olympic Committee (NOC) was formed on 24 September 1949 and requested IOC recognition immediately. On 29 August 1950, the IOC Executive Board gave provisional recognition to the FRG Olympic Committee. Full recognition came in May 1951 at the 46th IOC session in Vienna. The GDR formed an NOC on 22 April 1951 and also asked for recognition. In 1952, a German team was entered at Oslo and Helsinki. Although titularly a combined German team, it was made up entirely of athletes from the Federal Republic of Germany.

At the 51st IOC session in Paris in 1955, the GDR was granted recognition by the IOC by a vote of 27-7. However, the proviso to this recognition was that both Germanys would compete at the Olympics with a combined team. IOC President Avery Brundage boasted, “We have obtained in the field of sports what politicians have failed to achieve so far.”

In 1956, 1960, and 1964, a combined East and West German team competed under one flag. On 6 October 1965, at the 64th IOC session in Madrid, the IOC gave the GDR the right to enter a separate team at the 1968 Olympic Games. However, the decision mandated that both Germanies compete with the same uniforms, using the same flag adorned with the Olympic Symbol, and using the same anthem, the choral theme from Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. In addition, the GDR agreed to compete as East Germany, a name it did not recognize.

At the 68th IOC session at Mexico City in 1968, the IOC voted 44-4 that, beginning in 1972, both the FRG and the GDR could compete separately at the Olympic Games, wearing their own uniforms, and using their own flag and anthem, and with the correct names of their nations. On 3 October 1990, the GDR and the FRG dissolved their separate governments to once again form a single united German state. Competing in Albertville and Barcelona in 1992 was a single team representing a unified Germany.

Germany, wholly or separately, has always been one of the most powerful nations at the Olympics. Eight athletes have won eight or more medals while competing for Germany, led by swimmer Franziska van Almsick, though none gold, and equestrian Isabell Werth with 10 medals each. Werth also won the most gold medals for Germany with six. Two other athletes have won five gold medals for Germany: Claudia Pechstein (SSK) and Birgit Fischer-Schmidt (CAN), although Fischer-Schmidt won eight gold medals, including her performances for the GDR.

Germany has also hosted the Games of the XIth Olympiad in Berlin in 1936, the 4th Olympic Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, also in 1936, and the Games of the XXth Olympiad in Munich (then West Germany) in 1972. In addition, the 1916 Olympic Games were originally planned for Berlin, and the 1940 Olympic Winter Games were rescheduled for Garmisch-Partenkirchen after Sapporo and then St. Moritz withdrew as hosts.

Participations by edition

Edition Competition Type Men Women Total
1896 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 19 0 19 Results
1900 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 76 0 76 Results
1904 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 22 0 22 Results
1906 Intercalated Games Intercalated Games 49 0 49 Results
1908 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 80 2 82 Results
1912 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 180 5 185 Results
1928 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 263 35 298 Results
1928 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 39 5 44 Results
1932 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 136 9 145 Results
1932 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 20 0 20 Results
1936 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 389 44 433 Results
1936 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 48 7 55 Results
1952 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 173 32 205 Results
1952 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 41 12 53 Results
1956 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 134 24 158 Results
1956 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 52 11 63 Results
1956 Equestrian Olympics Olympic Games 6 3 9 Results
1960 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 239 55 294 Results
1960 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 56 18 74 Results
1964 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 275 62 337 Results
1964 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 73 23 96 Results
1992 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 300 163 463 Results
1992 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 75 36 111 Results
1994 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 79 33 112 Results
1996 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 279 187 466 Results
1998 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 78 47 125 Results
2000 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 241 181 422 Results
2002 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 88 69 157 Results
2004 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 250 191 441 Results
2006 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 94 61 155 Results
2008 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 237 183 420 Results
2010 Summer Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 33 37 70 Results
2010 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 93 56 149 Results
2012 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 212 171 383 Results
2012 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 22 33 55 Results
2014 Summer Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 39 45 84 Results
2014 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 76 75 151 Results
2016 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 224 194 418 Results
2016 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 23 20 43 Results
2018 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 89 56 145 Results
2020 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 39 52 91 Results

Participations by discipline

Olympic Games

Discipline (Sport) Men Women Total
Alpine Skiing (Skiing) 38 42 80 Results
Alpinism 2 0 2 Results
Archery 8 9 17 Results
Art Competitions 187 7 194 Results
Artistic Gymnastics (Gymnastics) 109 48 157 Results
Artistic Swimming (Aquatics) 0 2 2 Results
Athletics 505 257 762 Results
Badminton 12 11 23 Results
Basketball (Basketball) 34 0 34 Results
Beach Volleyball (Volleyball) 14 15 29 Results
Biathlon 30 20 50 Results
Bobsleigh (Bobsleigh) 102 17 119 Results
Boxing 97 0 97 Results
Canoe Marathon (Canoeing) 16 0 16 Results
Canoe Slalom (Canoeing) 30 8 38 Results
Canoe Sprint (Canoeing) 75 23 98 Results
Cross Country Skiing (Skiing) 64 32 96 Results
Curling 17 11 28 Results
Cycling BMX Racing (Cycling) 2 1 3 Results
Cycling Mountain Bike (Cycling) 8 6 14 Results
Cycling Road (Cycling) 64 13 77 Results
Cycling Track (Cycling) 84 15 99 Results
Diving (Aquatics) 44 33 77 Results
Equestrian Dressage (Equestrian) 18 16 34 Results
Equestrian Driving (Equestrian) 1 0 1 Results
Equestrian Eventing (Equestrian) 33 7 40 Results
Equestrian Jumping (Equestrian) 32 2 34 Results
Fencing 107 29 136 Results
Figure Skating (Skating) 39 47 86 Results
Football (Football) 107 58 165 Results
Freestyle Skiing (Skiing) 13 17 30 Results
Golf 2 2 4 Results
Handball 86 40 126 Results
Hockey 157 66 223 Results
Ice Hockey (Ice Hockey) 182 41 223 Results
Judo 33 32 65 Results
Luge 31 13 44 Results
Modern Pentathlon 26 5 31 Results
Nordic Combined (Skiing) 40 0 40 Results
Polo 4 0 4 Results
Rhythmic Gymnastics (Gymnastics) 0 30 30 Results
Rowing 307 83 390 Results
Rugby (Rugby) 15 0 15 Results
Sailing 114 27 141 Results
Shooting 95 24 119 Results
Short Track Speed Skating (Skating) 7 11 18 Results
Skeleton (Bobsleigh) 10 9 19 Results
Ski Jumping (Skiing) 43 6 49 Results
Snowboarding (Skiing) 19 14 33 Results
Speed Skating (Skating) 45 36 81 Results
Swimming (Aquatics) 157 118 275 Results
Table Tennis 10 13 23 Results
Taekwondo 5 4 9 Results
Tennis 25 13 38 Results
Trampolining (Gymnastics) 2 2 4 Results
Triathlon 8 7 15 Results
Tug-Of-War 1 0 1 Results
Volleyball (Volleyball) 19 26 45 Results
Water Polo (Aquatics) 97 0 97 Results
Weightlifting 64 4 68 Results
Wrestling 111 8 119 Results

Intercalated Games

Discipline (Sport) Men Women Total
Artistic Gymnastics (Gymnastics) 13 0 13 Results
Athletics 15 0 15 Results
Cycling Road (Cycling) 6 0 6 Results
Cycling Track (Cycling) 7 0 7 Results
Diving (Aquatics) 4 0 4 Results
Fencing 5 0 5 Results
Swimming (Aquatics) 5 0 5 Results
Tug-Of-War 8 0 8 Results
Weightlifting 2 0 2 Results
Wrestling 2 0 2 Results

Youth Olympic Games

Discipline (Sport) Men Women Total
3-on-3 Ice Hockey (Ice Hockey) 4 5 9 Results
3x3 Basketball (Basketball) 4 8 12 Results
Alpine Skiing (Skiing) 6 7 13 Results
Archery 1 2 3 Results
Artistic Gymnastics (Gymnastics) 2 2 4 Results
Athletics 8 21 29 Results
Badminton 1 2 3 Results
Beach Volleyball (Volleyball) 2 2 4 Results
Biathlon 8 8 16 Results
Bobsleigh (Bobsleigh) 4 4 8 Results
Boxing 4 0 4 Results
Canoe Sprint (Canoeing) 3 3 6 Results
Cross Country Skiing (Skiing) 7 7 14 Results
Curling 4 4 8 Results
Diving (Aquatics) 2 2 4 Results
Fencing 4 1 5 Results
Figure Skating (Skating) 3 3 6 Results
Freestyle Skiing (Skiing) 7 3 10 Results
Golf 1 1 2 Results
Hockey 5s 9 9 18 Results
Ice Hockey (Ice Hockey) 1 35 36 Results
Judo 2 2 4 Results
Luge 11 6 17 Results
Mixed Sports 13 11 24 Results
Modern Pentathlon 1 2 3 Results
Nordic Combined (Skiing) 4 2 6 Results
Rhythmic Gymnastics (Gymnastics) 0 1 1 Results
Rowing 2 3 5 Results
Sailing 1 1 2 Results
Shooting 2 2 4 Results
Short Track Speed Skating (Skating) 2 3 5 Results
Skeleton (Bobsleigh) 5 6 11 Results
Ski Jumping (Skiing) 7 5 12 Results
Ski Mountaineering 2 2 4 Results
Snowboarding (Skiing) 6 5 11 Results
Speed Skating (Skating) 6 6 12 Results
Swimming (Aquatics) 8 8 16 Results
Table Tennis 2 2 4 Results
Taekwondo 5 3 8 Results
Tennis 2 1 3 Results
Trampolining (Gymnastics) 1 1 2 Results
Triathlon 2 2 4 Results
Weightlifting 2 0 2 Results
Wrestling 1 1 2 Results

Medals by Games

Edition Competition Type Gold Silver Bronze Total
1936 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 38 31 32 101
1992 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 33 21 28 82
1996 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 20 18 27 65
2016 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 17 10 15 42
2008 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 16 11 14 41
2018 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 14 10 7 31
2000 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 13 17 26 56
2004 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 13 16 20 49
1960 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 12 19 11 42
2002 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 12 16 8 36
1998 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 12 9 8 29
2012 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 11 20 13 44
2006 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 11 12 6 29
1928 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 11 9 19 39
1964 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 10 22 18 50
2010 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 10 13 7 30
1992 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 10 10 6 26
1994 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 9 7 8 24
2012 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 8 7 2 17
2014 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 8 6 5 19
2016 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 7 7 8 22
1912 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 6 13 7 26
1896 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 6 5 2 13
1932 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 5 12 7 24
2020 Winter Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 5 7 6 18
1956 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 4 10 6 20
2010 Summer Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 4 9 9 22
1906 Intercalated Games Intercalated Games 4 6 5 15
1904 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 4 5 6 15
1900 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 4 3 2 9
1960 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 4 3 1 8
1908 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 3 5 5 13
1964 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 3 3 3 9
1936 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 3 3 0 6
1952 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 3 2 2 7
2014 Summer Youth Olympics Youth Olympic Games 2 8 15 25
1956 Equestrian Olympics Olympic Games 2 3 1 6
1956 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 1 0 1 2
1952 Summer Olympics Olympic Games 0 7 17 24
1932 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 0 0 2 2
1928 Winter Olympics Olympic Games 0 0 1 1

Medals by sport

Olympic Games

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Canoe Sprint 30 19 13 62
Rowing 27 18 15 60
Athletics 22 44 44 110
Luge 20 12 10 42
Biathlon 19 21 12 52
Swimming 14 23 34 71
Speed Skating 14 16 10 40
Artistic Gymnastics 14 12 14 40
Alpine Skiing 14 8 9 31
Equestrian Dressage 13 9 7 29
Bobsleigh 13 6 6 25
Cycling Track 12 11 14 37
Shooting 11 9 6 26
Equestrian Jumping 10 2 5 17
Art Competitions 8 7 9 24
Equestrian Eventing 7 7 6 20
Ski Jumping 7 6 2 15
Fencing 6 8 11 25
Weightlifting 6 7 9 22
Nordic Combined 6 5 5 16
Wrestling 5 18 12 35
Boxing 5 12 12 29
Diving 5 9 10 24
Figure Skating 5 4 3 12
Sailing 4 5 6 15
Canoe Slalom 4 2 5 11
Hockey 4 2 5 11
Judo 3 3 14 20
Cross Country Skiing 2 9 4 15
Cycling Road 2 7 3 12
Tennis 2 6 2 10
Canoe Marathon 2 2 4 8
Beach Volleyball 2 0 1 3
Modern Pentathlon 2 0 1 3
Snowboarding 1 4 2 7
Water Polo 1 2 0 3
Football 1 1 4 6
Cycling Mountain Bike 1 1 1 3
Handball 1 1 1 3
Triathlon 1 1 0 2
Trampolining 1 0 1 2
Alpinism 1 0 0 1
Table Tennis 0 3 4 7
Archery 0 2 1 3
Skeleton 0 2 1 3
Ice Hockey 0 1 1 2
Marathon Swimming 0 1 1 2
Taekwondo 0 1 1 2
Freestyle Skiing 0 1 0 1
Rugby 0 1 0 1

Intercalated Games

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Fencing 2 2 0 4
Diving 1 1 0 2
Tug-Of-War 1 0 0 1
Athletics 0 1 1 2
Cycling Track 0 1 1 2
Swimming 0 1 0 1
Weightlifting 0 0 3 3

Youth Olympic Games

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Luge 5 8 2 15
Biathlon 4 2 0 6
Skeleton 3 2 2 7
Bobsleigh 3 0 1 4
Athletics 2 4 6 12
Rowing 2 1 0 3
Mixed Sports 2 0 2 4
Boxing 2 0 0 2
Alpine Skiing 1 2 3 6
Ski Jumping 1 2 1 4
Nordic Combined 1 0 1 2
Swimming 0 4 6 10
Taekwondo 0 3 1 4
Snowboarding 0 2 1 3
Cross Country Skiing 0 2 0 2
Judo 0 1 3 4
Fencing 0 1 2 3
Canoe Sprint 0 1 1 2
Sailing 0 1 1 2
Canoe Slalom 0 1 0 1
Freestyle Skiing 0 1 0 1
Ice Hockey 0 0 2 2
Beach Volleyball 0 0 1 1
Modern Pentathlon 0 0 1 1
Rhythmic Gymnastics 0 0 1 1
Shooting 0 0 1 1
Short Track Speed Skating 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Isabell Werth GER 6 4 0 10
Birgit Fischer-Schmidt GDR
GER
5 3 0 8
Claudia Pechstein GER 5 2 2 9
Ricco Groß GER 4 3 1 8
Sven Fischer GER 4 2 2 8
Kevin Kuske GER 4 2 0 6
Katrin Wagner-Augustin GER 4 1 1 6
André Lange GER 4 1 0 5
Kathrin Boron GER 4 0 1 5
Natalie Geisenberger GER 4 0 1 5

Intercalated Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Gustav Casmir GER 2 2 0 4
Heinrich Schneidereit GER 1 0 2 3
Heinrich Rondi GER 1 0 1 2
Jakob Erckrath de Bary GER 1 0 0 1
August Petri GER 1 0 0 1
Emil Schön GER 1 0 0 1
Josef Krämer GER 1 0 0 1
Gottlob Walz GER 1 0 0 1
Julius Wagner GER
SUI
1 0 0 1
Willy Dörr GER 1 0 0 1
Carl Kaltenbach GER 1 0 0 1
Wilhelm Ritzenhoff GER 1 0 0 1
Wilhelm Born GER 1 0 0 1

Youth Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Franziska Preuß GER 3 1 0 4
Niklas Homberg GER 2 0 0 2
Maximilian Janke GER 2 0 0 2
Tim Kopp GER 1 1 1 3
Katharina Althaus GER 1 1 0 2
Moritz Jäger GER 1 1 0 2
Valentin Steudte GER 1 1 0 2
Jessica Degenhardt GER 1 1 0 2
Merle Fräbel GER 1 1 0 2
Christian Paffe GER 1 1 0 2
Juliane Frühwirt GER 1 1 0 2
Paul Gubitz GER 1 1 0 2
Paul-Lukas Heider GER 1 1 0 2
Hannes Orlamünder GER 1 1 0 2
Jessica Tiebel GER 1 1 0 2

IOC Members

Willi Gebhardt 1896—1909
Archambauld, Count Talleyrand-Périgord 1899—1903
Eduard, Prince von Salm-Horstmar 1901—1905
Caesar, Count von Wartensleben Carow 1903—1914
Egbert, Count von der Asseburg 1905—1909
Karl, Baron von Diepurg 1909—1914
Adalbert, Count von Francken-Sierstorpff 1910—1919
Adolf, Count von Arnim-Muskau 1913—1919
Theodor Lewald 1924—1938
Oskar Ruperti 1924—1929
Adolf Friedrich Herzog zu Mecklenburg 1926—1956
Karl von Halt 1929—1964
Walter von Reichenau 1938—1942
Adolf Friedrich Herzog zu Mecklenburg 1956—1966
Willi Daume 1956—1966
Walther Tröger 1989—2009
Willi Daume 1990—1991
Berthold Beitz 1990—2013
Günther Heinze 1990—1992
Willi Daume 1991—1996
Thomas Bach 1991—
Günther Heinze 1992—
Roland Baar 1999—2004
Claudia Bokel 2008—2016
Walther Tröger 2010—
Britta Heidemann 2016—