Figure Skating

Facts

Discipline of Skating
Participants 1758
NOCs 57
Competitions held 95 (Venues)
Distinct events 11
IF International Skating Union

Description

Figure skating began in the mid- to late-19th century almost concurrently in Europe and North America, but two Americans are responsible for major developments in its history. In 1850, Edward Bushnell of Philadelphia revolutionized skating technology when he refined the use of steel-bladed skates. This allowed the creation of fancy twists and turns on the ice. Another American, Jackson Haines, a ballet master, visited Wien (Vienna) in the 1860s and added the elements of music and dance to figure skating. Originally, free skating was subordinate to school figures, or the tracing of pretty patterns on the ice.

International figure skating competitions were held in Europe in the 1880s and the International Skating Union (ISU) was formed in 1892, the first true international governing body of any winter sport. As of 2020, the ISU has 91 member nations, with 2 club members (Internationaler Schlittschuh-Club Davos (SUI) and Stockholms Allmänna Skridskoklubb (SWE)). However, because several nations have both a figure skating and a speed skating member, only 77 nations are represented in the ISU.

Originally men and women competed together, with the first world championship being held in what was then and is now St. Petersburg, Russia (formerly Leningrad) in 1896. The first women’s championship was held in 1906.

Figure skating is the oldest sport on the Olympic Winter Games program. It was contested at the London Olympics of 1908 and again in 1920 at Antwerp. Events for men, women, and pairs were contested thru 1972. In 1976, ice dancing, long a popular event, was added to the program as a fourth event, although it had been held as a demonstration event in 1968.

Scoring has evolved during the century also, as the former predominance of compulsory figures in the scoring gave way in the early 1970s. A short program of free skating was added, primarily to equalize results among skaters who were excellent at compulsories but lesser free skaters, to those who were poor compulsory skaters but top-notch free skaters.

This was exemplified in that era by Beatrix “Trixi” Schuba (AUT), who was an excellent skater in compulsories, but was a relatively lesser free skater, and Janet Lynn (USA), who was a superb free skater but was usually beaten by Schuba because of her lesser skill in the compulsories. This gave impetus to the movement to decrease the importance of compulsory figures. At the end of the 1980s the ISU ruled that compulsory figures would no longer be held at international competitions. They last were contested at the 1990 World Championships and they have not been a part of the Olympic figure skating program since 1988.

After a controversial judging decision in the pairs at Salt Lake City in 2002, the ISU overhauled the scoring system again, replacing the time-honored system of 6.0 maximum and positions decided by majority placements with a system that awards points to successful execution of various elements with no theoretic limit on the number of points that may be scored.

The United States and Russia lead the medal lists in figure skating. The USA has won 51 medals and 15 gold medals. Russia also has 15 gold medals, with 27 medals. However, including Russia and the former Soviet Union, they have won 51 medals and 25 golds.

Five skaters have won three gold medals – Scott Moir (CAN), Tessa Virtue (CAN), Gillis Grafström (SWE), Sonja Henie (NOR), and Irina Rodnina (URS), with Moir and Virtue leading with 5 figure skating medals.

All-time medal table

Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
United States USA 16 17 21 54
Russian Federation RUS 15 9 3 27
Soviet Union URS 10 9 5 24
Austria AUT 7 9 4 20
Canada CAN 6 11 12 29
Germany GER 5 4 3 12
Great Britain GBR 5 3 7 15
Sweden SWE 5 3 2 10
France FRA 4 3 7 14
ROC ROC 3 5 1 9
Japan JPN 3 4 4 11
East Germany GDR 3 3 4 10
Norway NOR 3 2 1 6
Unified Team EUN 3 1 1 5
People's Republic of China CHN 2 3 4 9
Netherlands NED 1 2 0 3
Czechoslovakia TCH 1 1 3 5
Finland FIN 1 1 0 2
Republic of Korea KOR 1 1 0 2
Belgium BEL 1 0 1 2
Ukraine UKR 1 0 1 2
Hungary HUN 0 2 4 6
Switzerland SUI 0 2 1 3
Italy ITA 0 0 2 2
West Germany FRG 0 0 2 2
Kazakhstan KAZ 0 0 1 1
Spain ESP 0 0 1 1

Youth Olympic Games

NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
Russian Federation RUS 7 7 8 22
Mixed team MIX 3 3 3 9
Japan JPN 2 1 0 3
People's Republic of China CHN 2 0 1 3
Republic of Korea KOR 1 0 0 1
United States USA 0 1 1 2
Czech Republic CZE 0 1 0 1
Latvia LAT 0 1 0 1
Ukraine UKR 0 1 0 1
Georgia GEO 0 0 1 1
Kazakhstan KAZ 0 0 1 1

Most successful competitors

Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Scott Moir CAN 3 2 0 5
Tessa Virtue CAN 3 2 0 5
Gillis Grafström SWE 3 1 0 4
Sonja Henie NOR 3 0 0 3
Irina Rodnina RUS
URS
3 0 0 3
Yevgeny Plyushchenko RUS 2 2 0 4
Nikita Katsalapov ROC
RUS
2 1 1 4
Artur Dmitriyev RUS
EUN
2 1 0 3
Andrée Brunet-Joly FRA 2 0 1 3
Pierre Brunet FRA 2 0 1 3

Youth Olympic Games

Athlete Nat Gold Silver Bronze Total
Kseniya Sinitsyna RUS 1 1 0 2
Yuma Kagiyama JPN 1 1 0 2
Dmitry Aliyev ROC
RUS
1 0 1 2
Alina Butaeva GEO 1 0 1 2
Luka Berulava GEO 1 0 1 2
Feodosy Yefremenkov RUS 1 0 1 2
Kirill Alyoshin RUS 1 0 1 2
Anastasiya Skoptsova RUS 1 0 1 2
Yan Han CHN 1 0 0 1
Li Xiangning CHN 1 0 0 1
Yu Xiaoyu CHN 1 0 0 1
Jin Yang CHN 1 0 0 1
Dmitry Rylov RUS 1 0 0 1
Shingo Nishiyama JPN 1 0 0 1
Arlet Levandi EST 1 0 0 1
Apollinariya Panfilova RUS 1 0 0 1
Irina Khavronina RUS 1 0 0 1
Utana Yoshida JPN 1 0 0 1
Dario Chirizano RUS 1 0 0 1
Yu Yeong KOR 1 0 0 1
Edward Carstairs GBR 1 0 0 1
Millie Paterson GBR 1 0 0 1
Sergey Mozgov RUS 1 0 0 1
Yelizaveta Tuktamysheva RUS 1 0 0 1
Anna Yanovskaya RUS 1 0 0 1
Tina Stürzinger SUI 1 0 0 1
Sota Yamamoto JPN 1 0 0 1
Yekaterina Borisova RUS 1 0 0 1
Anastasiya Shpilevaya RUS 1 0 0 1
Grigory Smirnov RUS 1 0 0 1
Dmitry Sopot RUS 1 0 0 1
Polina Tsurskaya RUS 1 0 0 1
Joseph Goodpaster USA 1 0 0 1
Sarah Rose USA 1 0 0 1

Event types

Name Gender Still contested? Times held?
Singles Men 26
Singles Women 26
Pairs Mixed 26
Ice Dancing Mixed 14
Team Mixed 3
Singles Boys 3
Singles Girls 3
Pairs Mixed Youth 3
Ice Dancing Mixed Youth 3
Team Mixed Youth 3
Special Figures Men 1