|NOC||National Olympic Committee of Turkmenistan|
|Youth Olympic Games||19|
|Other competitors with TKM nationality||4|
As a former member of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistani athletes competed from 1952-88 on the former Soviet Union teams, and their athletes were present at Barcelona in 1992 as members of the Unified Team. During this time Turkmenistanis won two medals. The shooter Marat Niyazov won silver in the small-bore rifle, three positions in 1960 and the swimmer Gennady Nikolayev was a member of the bronze medal winning 4×200 metres freestyle relay team at the 1956 Games.
Turkmenistan first competed independently at the 1996 Olympic Games but it has not yet participated in the Olympic Winter Games. Turkmenistan has yet to win its first Olympic medal, a sixth place being the top result so far, achieved by Ümürbek Bazarbaýew in 2012 featherweight weightlifting.
|1996 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||4||3||7||Results|
|2000 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||4||4||8||Results|
|2004 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||6||3||9||Results|
|2008 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||6||4||10||Results|
|2010 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||Youth Olympic Games||3||2||5||Results|
|2012 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||7||3||10||Results|
|2014 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||Youth Olympic Games||2||1||3||Results|
|2016 Summer Olympics||Turkmenistan||Olympic Games||4||5||9||Results|
|2018 Summer Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||Youth Olympic Games||7||3||10||Results|
|2020 Winter Youth Olympics||Turkmenistan||Youth Olympic Games||1||0||1||Results|
|3-on-3 Ice Hockey (Ice Hockey)||1||0||1||Results|
|3x3 Basketball (Basketball)||4||0||4||Results|
|2010 Summer Youth Olympics||Youth Olympic Games||0||0||1||1|
Includes medals won as part of mixed teams.