Frank Ullrich first appeared at the 1976 Innsbruck Winter Games winning the relay bronze medal together with Manfred Geyer, Karl-Heinz Menz and Manfred Beer, finishing behind the Soviet Union and Finland. But then he had his greatest Olympics in 1980 at Lake Placid, winning the gold medal over 10 km, and two silvers over 20 km and in the relay. Four years later when he was East German flagbearer at the Opening Ceremony, he finished fifth in the 20 km, 17th in the 10 km, and fourth in the relay. Between 1977 and 1983 he also won 14 medals at the World Championships (9-4-1), six in the relays and eight in individual events, and Ullrich was also a four-time overall World Cup champion (1978, 1980-82). Domestically he had five national titles, six runner-ups, and two third places with ASK Vorwärts Oberhof.
Ullrich finished his active career and turned to coaching when his wife died after a long illness. He became one of the most successful biathlon coaches ever, first coaching the national team of GDR from 1987 to German reunification, then the German team between 1998 and 2010, claiming four Olympic gold, three silver and two bronze medals and several World Championship podiums by his pupils. In 2012 he took over the German cross-country team from Jochen Behle.