|Competitions held||56 (Venues)|
|IF||International Skating Union|
In the United States and Canada, speed skating was not conducted in time-trial fashion, but in small pack races. This format was used at the 1932 Olympic Winter Games, but never used again outdoors at the Olympics. However, races in indoor halls, frequently also used for ice hockey and figure skating, became increasingly popular in North America, and in 1967 the International Skating Union (ISU) recognized short-track speed skating as a separate sport. Since 1981, World Championships have been held, and in 1988 the sport was demonstrated at the Winter Olympics in Calgary.
The sport is governed by the ISU, which was formed in 1892, the first true international governing body of any winter sport, and it also governs figure skating and short-track speed skating. As of 2020, the ISU has 91 member nations, with 2 club members (Internationaler Schlittschuh-Club Davos (SUI) and Stockholms Allmänna Skridskoklubb (SWE)). However, because several nations have both a figure skating and a speed skating member, only 77 nations are represented in the ISU.
Short-track speed skating became a full medal sport in 1992, with an individual event and a relay event for both men and women. This program has gradually been expanded to eight events. Both men and women contest 500 m, 1,000 m and 1,500 m individually, as well as a relay event (3,000 m for women, 5,000 m for men).
While Europeans have dominated traditional speed skating, North American and Asian countries have taken the bulk of Olympic medals in this sport. In particular, South Korea has excelled, having won 24 gold medals out of 56 events contested. The most decorated short-track speed skaters have been Viktor An (formerly Ahn Hyeon-Su) (KOR/RUS), Apolo Anton Ohno (USA), and Arianna Fontana (ITA), who have all won 8 medals, with An/Ahn winning 6 gold medals. Wang Meng (CHN) and Jeon I-Gyeong (KOR) have both won 4 gold medals.
|Republic of Korea||KOR||24||13||11||48|
|People's Republic of China||CHN||10||15||8||33|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||PRK||0||0||1||1|
|Olympic Athletes from Russia||OAR||0||0||1||1|
|Republic of Korea||KOR||11||6||0||17|
|People's Republic of China||CHN||1||3||5||9|
|Viktor An|| KOR
|Apolo Anton Ohno||USA||2||2||4||8|
|Yang Yang (A)||CHN||2||2||1||5|
|Diede van Oorschot||NED||1||0||0||1|
|Name||Gender||Still contested?||Times held?|
|5,000 metres Relay||Men||9|
|3,000 metres Relay||Women||9|
|3,000 metres Relay||Mixed Youth||3|